What are the future of space travel? From early on, mankind has lots of inspiration, enlightenment and excitement to the stars. In the twentieth century, we took a major step forward in space exploration with the launch of the first artificial satellite in the 1950s, followed by the successful lunar landing of Apollo 11 in 1969 and the establish of the International Space Station in 1998. Today, given the growing concern about global warming and climate change, our vision is broader and more ambitious. It’s probably not hard to understand why NASA, Space X, Boeing and other companies are working on altitude rocket to fly to other destinations.

In the era of rapid development of spaceflight, can space travel be realized?

The Mars landing program and the commercialization of space flight appear to be within reach, but the exact pace of technological progress and how it must evolve to realize mankind’s dream of the stars remains an open question. The biggest and most recognized difficulty to overcome is how to address the actual time it takes to reach anywhere in space. You can get to the moon in a week, but getting to Mars takes months. Therefore, how to reduce the round-trip time is a problem we must dig out. Conventional chemical rockets are not only behind the times, but also inefficient because they need to consume up to 10-15 times their own weight in fuel just to get into geosynchronous orbit. Therefore, there is a great need for a newer and more reliable propulsion system that uses less fuel to obtain faster speeds or to create fuel during the launch.

In the era of rapid development of spaceflight, can space travel be realized?

This would allow us to get out of the constraints of the launch window and determine whether we can launch to Mars from Sidon. Currently speaking the best time for rocket launches occurs about every two years. When the orbit is in optimal position, we can launch manned rockets or supply ships weekly, daily or even hourly. Solar sails are one of the more eye-catching options when requiring the Power. They work as their name suggests, being huge sails made of mirrors of special materials that allow them to determine their position and direction by the solar wind.

Surprisingly, they have long been used on Japan’s Icarus probe, which skimmed Venus on its 2010 space voyage, but their drawback is that their energy cuts as the spacecraft gets farther from the sun. And if the final destination is completely out of the solar system, the Solar sail can only stop. In addition, nuclear pulse propulsion is another option, but detonating a nuclear device to create thrust produces much more devastation.

In the era of rapid development of spaceflight, can space travel be realized?

The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which entered into force in 1963, prohibits the space sector (any nuclear and test explosions in the atmosphere and in outer space). However, there are still proponents who believe that effective use of the explosive force generated by a nuclear bomb for boost could allow a spacecraft to travel at 12% of the speed of light. Clearly, this approach has risks, and filling a spacecraft with nuclear warheads would pose incalculable dangers to space missions. Even if the idea could be safely implemented, the gravity generated by these warheads could put everyone on the ship to death. However, Nuclear fusion engine and Ion thruster are viable methods due to significantly lower fuel requirements.

Both of these engines have lower fuel requirements and can provide the energy for a spacecraft over long distances with relatively little thrust. This means that while they are not as fast as nuclear pulse propulsion, they are much safer. Nuclear fusion engine technology is still in the development stage, but NASA has been experimenting with Ion thruster for years. The Deep Space 1, launched in 1998 as part of NASA’s New Millennium Initiative, used Gas Ion engines during its journey, It dose not need to carry tons of fuel because the system use electric power.

Once you’re off the ground and in orbit, solar power is probably the most well-known method of generating electricity in outer space. This is because the space lacks of atmosphere and close to the sun, making solar panels more efficient. However, as solar power creasing, solar radiation can then cause damage to the ship’s hull, especially if they are exposed to the sun for a long time. NASA is also developing a new type of battery planned for future trips to Europa, which is one of Jupiter’s many satellites (discovered by Galileo in 1610, is the sixth known satellite of Jupiter and the second closest to Jupiter). These super powerful battery packs are capable of operating in extreme temperature and radioactive conditions.

Finally, there are Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator or RTGS, which use Decane plutonium to generate heat and power that is said to be enough for decades. RTGS do have their followers, but again raise similar concerns to Nuclear pulse propulsion. If an RTG is damaged in any way, it can become a killer. So space experts have developed a super-efficient propulsion system and a foolproof way to refuel the ship. Well, new problems may have to be solved by energy sources that can support greater distances in less time and at greater speeds.

Even Mars, our nearest planetary neighbor, has significant communication delays, despite the lowest latency with the most important mission control center currently on Earth. The time interval between sending and receiving radio signals is about 3 minutes, and the inconvenience caused by this delay is fairly easy to deal with except in cases of special urgency. However, this delay can climb up to 24 minutes on a trial basis, as these gaps will widen as we try to get to other locations.

There are some solutions, include building a large outer space-based network to use the sun to improve our standardized transmission speeds, building giant satellite constellations across the system, or using Treena communication facilities, but the obvious omission in these solutions is that most of them seem to set up in theory only. Of course, when we apply the virtual concepts of fiction to real life, we can avoid almost all communication problems.

Long-distance transmission

In 2017, for the first time ever, we succeeded in teleporting a photon from Earth to circumterrestrial satellite orbit. However, if the atoms in our bodies were somehow broken down and transported, we would certainly die.

If teleportation is a routine procedure in the distant future, then at that time we just need to fly to other planets in order to set up a teleportation machine on that planet. After that, we can easily travel between Earth and other planets. But obviously, we still have a long way to go.

The last issue is that we need to find people who are ready to drive the spacecraft. NASA and other space agencies have conducted a variety of academic studies on the future astronaut population, studying the effects of long-term isolated travel on solo travelers as well as the changes in group dynamics of astronauts. Any astronaut who travels long distances is set a rigorous training that will help maintain their physical and mental health as they face physical muscle atrophy and psychological isolation. Even so, the current maximum stay in space is only 437 days, so the first astronaut to make a long-distance trip is likely to encounter some unexpected health problems, but these training are still considered to reduce some of the health risks.

With the development of science fiction forms, in the future of space missions, similar to the once popular fitness tracking biomonitoring watches will play an important role. This wearable technology products will carry more artificial intelligence information processor, and in the long-distance travel of astronauts will undoubtedly rely on this high-tech products.

We wear it on our wrist or talk to it through a screen.

All these actions leave us with the final question: “Now that companies are racing to send humans to Mars, where do we go after that?”

It’s easy to forget that there are many other places for humans to explore. Initially it was even said that our wisest action would be to establish a closed colony closer to Earth first ,for example on the Moon first, and then travel to Mars.

But others are already making longer-term plans on the various satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

Some even want to land on Venus – the second closest planet to us (after Mars).

Obviously, space technology still has a long way to go to meet these unattainable dreams, but the brightest minds in the human race have already made up their minds to reach out into outer space.

The next generation of spacecraft will launch objects different from anything we’ve ever seen.

It will go farther on less fuel and present an all-encompassing paradise for those lucky enough to ride it.

Whether the destination is the Mars or the Moon or somewhere else thousands of miles away, we are building a machine called Tiger.

Related knowledge

Mars is the fourth-farthest planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in our solar system, only larger than Mercury.

In English, Mars is the name of the ancient Roman God of War.

The prevalence of iron oxide on the surfacegives Mars  a distinctive red color among celestial bodies visible to the human eye. This is why it is also commonly referred to as the “Red Planet”.

Mars is an Earth-like planet with a thin atmosphere,  which surface features is similar to the impact craters on the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps on Earth.

Mars’ day and night and seasons are similar to Earth’s, due to the similarity of their rotation periods and the tilt of their rotation axes with respect to the ecliptic plane.

The highest mountain in the solar system is Rheasilvia Central Peak on Vesta (4 vesta), 22.5 km high, and Mount Olimpis, 21.9 km high.

Also Mars is home to one of the largest canyons in the solar system, the Valley of the Mariner.

The smooth Polaris basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars covers 40% of its planet’s surface area, and it was probably created as a result of a huge impact.

Mars has two moons, Phobos and Phobos, both of which are small and irregularly shaped.

Reference

On July 15, 1963, the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union resumed negotiations in Moscow and soon reached an agreement, and on August 5, the three countries signed the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, or the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, in Moscow. The treaty commits the parties to “prohibit, prevent and refrain from conducting any test explosions or any other nuclear explosions” in the atmosphere, in outer space or underwater, and to “not cause, encourage or in any way participate in” such nuclear weapon test explosions or other nuclear tests. A nuclear bomb uses an explosive nuclear reaction to release a nuclear weapon.

Nuclear bombs use explosive nuclear reactions, which are self-sustaining, rapid fission or fusion reactions of atomic nuclei, to release enormous amounts of energy. Nuclear warhead, a missile with a nuclear warhead. Also known as the “payload of a ballistic missile”. Located at the front end of a ballistic missile, it is the part that separates from the body and re-enters the atmosphere during flight, and is therefore called a “re-entry vehicle” by the United Kingdom and the United States. It uses the nuclear warhead to generate a nuclear explosion in time to carry out mass destruction of the target.

“Thermonuclear warhead” – is the second generation of nuclear warheads, that is, hydrogen bombs, by the atomic bomb detonation of hydrogen bombs, it is nuclear fission plus nuclear fusion – the atomic bomb released high-energy neutrons and lithium deuteride Tritium is produced by reacting with lithium deuteride, and tritium and deuterium polymerize to produce energy. Because the fusion conditions of the hydrogen bomb requires tens of millions of degrees of high temperature, compared to the detonation temperature of the atomic bomb is very high, so the hydrogen warhead is also called thermonuclear warhead, the Soviet Union in 1961 in Xindi test explosion of the large Ivan that belongs to this category, in view of the power far more than the backward atomic bomb, so the world’s real strategic nuclear weapons fear more in this category.

Gravity, alias gravitational force, is the force of mutual attraction between all objects with mass. This force on other objects is called gravity. The direction of the gravitational force on other objects is in any direction.

The gravitational force on an object on the ground is only one manifestation of the force of gravity near the surface of the earth. In physics, gravity is the tendency for objects to come closer to each other at an accelerated rate. The attraction of the Earth causes nearby objects to fall toward the ground. Gravity is the reason for the existence of galaxies such as the solar system; without gravity celestial bodies would not be able to attract each other to form celestial systems. Gravity also causes the Earth and other celestial bodies to follow their own orbits around the Sun, the Moon to follow its own orbit around the Earth, the formation of tides, and a variety of other natural phenomena that we observe. Gravity is the factor that gives weight to an object.

Nuclear fusion engine

Nuclear fusion, or nuclear fusion, is the release of enormous energy when light atomic nuclei (e.g., deuterium and tritium) combine to heavier nuclei (e.g., helium). The nucleus is composed of a small mass of atoms, mainly deuterium, and under certain conditions (such as ultra-high temperatures and pressures), only at extremely high temperatures and pressures can the electrons outside the nucleus escape from the nucleus, allowing the two nuclei to collide with each other in a mutually attractive manner, resulting in a new, heavier nucleus (such as helium). Neutrons, although they have a larger mass, can escape from the nucleus during this collision and are released. The release of a large number of electrons and neutrons is a huge release of energy. Atomic nuclei contain enormous amounts of energy, and changes in the nucleus (from one type of nucleus to another) are often accompanied by a release of energy. Scientists are working on controlled fusion, which could become the energy source of the future.

Nuclear fusion is the opposite form of nuclear reaction to nuclear fission, which refers to a form of nuclear reaction in which a heavy atomic nucleus (primarily a uranium or plutonium nucleus) splits into two or more atoms of lesser mass. The source of energy for an atomic bomb or nuclear power plant is nuclear fission.

Fusion rockets: Scientists envision a new blueprint for using nuclear fusion rockets to send humans into orbit around Mars. The artist-conceived fusion rockets are equipped with solar panels and are used primarily for energy harvesting during the launch segment of the spacecraft. Researchers from the University of Washington say that humans have been unable to achieve fast interplanetary voyages and that nuclear fusion power technology will bring us a new source of energy, using a fusion reaction similar to that of the sun. Scientists at the institution are conducting research on fusion rocket power at Raymond Space Propulsion.

Ion thrusters, also known as ion engines, are a type of space electric propulsion technology characterized by low thrust and high specific impulse, and are widely used in space propulsion, such as spacecraft attitude control, position holding, orbital maneuvers and interplanetary flights. The principle is to first ionize the gaseous mass and accelerate the ions under the effect of strong electric field, which will propel the satellite for attitude adjustment or orbit transfer mission through the reaction force. Compared with the traditional chemical propulsion method, ion thrusters require less mass of work mass and are the most suitable for long-distance navigation among the propulsion technologies that have been commercialized.

Nuclear pulse propulsion is a proposed spacecraft propulsion technology that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.

Deep Space 1 Probe

Deep Space, NASA’s asteroid and comet detection count, was launched in 1998. After 2001, scientists decided to make Deep Space 1 orbit the Sun. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft in the world to be navigated by computers, propelled by ion engines conceived by science fiction writers, and capable of independent thought.

The trajectory of the spacecraft orbit spacecraft center of mass, including launch orbit, orbit of operation, return orbit, etc. spacecraft orbit The trajectory of the spacecraft center of mass, including launch orbit, orbit, return orbit, etc. According to the mission of spacecraft, the orbit is divided into artificial earth satellite orbit, lunar probe orbit, planetary probe orbit, etc.

Europa, discovered by Galileo in 1610, is the sixth know moon of Jupiter, the fourth largest moon of Jupiter, and the second closest to Jupiter among the moons discovered by Galileo. Io (Europa) is a mild world with a surface covered in ice and an ocean at the bottom. Scientists believe that Earth’s oceans have nurtured life, and that Io, which has a similar environment to Earth, could also potentially harbor life. Therefore, Io’s subglacial ocean has become one of the targets for scientists looking for extraterrestrial life.

Only seven of the approximately 165 moons in our solar system  are known to have atmospheres. Unlike the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere, Io’s oxygen is not biologically formed. It is most likely due to water vapor produced by charged particles from sunlight hitting Io’s icy surface, which then split into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas detached, leaving behind the oxygen.

The composition of Io and Europa is similar to that of the Earth-like planets: it is composed mainly of silicate rocks. However, unlike Io, Europa has an outer layer of ice up to 100 km thick, which may have a world of liquid water deep beneath the ice due to the presence of an internal energy source, and a very “smooth” surface with a low number of impact craters. The geological structure of the planet is relatively active, and data from Galileo suggest that Io has an internal layered structure and possibly a small metallic core.

On December 11, 2013, NASA announced that clay minerals have been found on the surface of Europa that may be capable of fostering new life. Its surface is covered with ice, with ice temperatures around -26 degrees Celsius. There are oceans beneath the ice, 96 kilometers deeper than Earth’s deepest ocean.

Sept. 26, 2016 – Europa’s subsurface ocean is considered the most promising place in the solar system to harbor life, according to NASA expert Jeff Yoder.

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is a generator that uses radioactive decay to obtain energy. This device uses an array of thermocouples (applying the Seebeck effect) to receive heat from the decay of a suitable radioactive material and convert it into electricity.

This thermomotor can also be considered as a battery, and is used as an energy source on artificial satellites, space probes and unmanned remote control devices, such as the Soviet Union’s lighthouses in the polar regions, where there is no one , to supply less than a hundred watts of electricity and the time needed is not available from fuel cells, batteries, generators, and solar cells can not work in this place, The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator is the ideal energy source.

Decane is an alkane with 10 carbon atoms and 22 hydrogen atoms in its molecular structure, with the chemical formula C10H22 and 75 isomers, and decane generally refers to n-decane unless otherwise specified. Plutonium is a radioactive element with an atomic number of 94 and the symbol Pu. It is an important raw material for the atomic energy industry and is used as nuclear fuel and fissile agent for nuclear weapons. The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki City used plutonium for the core part. Plutonium was first synthesized in December 1940 at the University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.